Option 1

Though political scientists debate on the precise reasons for the low representation of women in Congress, the number of women serving in the House and Senate is significantly lower than that of men. Since the 1980s, the percentage of women in congress has consistently increased, yet they are still notably underrepresented (Chamberlain University, 2023). A complex problem, the underrepresentation of women in Congress has structural, political, and cultural roots. After the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920, several states, particularly in the west, granted women the right to vote. However, this restriction persisted until the 1960s civil rights movements and the enactment of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.  Before the 1980s, women were less likely than males to vote and participate in politics. Today, women vote at a greater rate (4%) than men, yet there is still a dearth of women in congress in the United States (Greenberg, E. S. & Page, B. I., 2018).

The low representation of women in Congress, in my opinion, is due to a variety of factors, including gender stereotypes and roles that are special to girls' genders. As a result, girls may be exposed to fewer cues that encourage political activity, which in turn results in fewer women entering the political pipeline. Women currently have many obligations, including family, employment, housework, raising children, and providing for their education. As a result, they do not have enough time for politics, which may affect their ability to be represented in Congress. Sanbonmatsu, K. (2020), claims that due to the low number of women in Congress, American democracy may not require women's representation. According to the article, women make up 23.7 percent of congressional presentations in the United States, which is lower than the global average of 24 %. A statute or constitutional provision requiring a gender quota for candidates or officeholders does not exist in the United States, but the use of quotas in elections is on the rise globally. Women's representation in politics, in my opinion, might be improved by quota systems. To increase the number of women in Congress, gender equality should be promoted, and gender discrimination should be ended.


Chamberlain University (2023). Week 5: U.S. Congress and Presidency

Greenberg, E. S & Page, B. I. (2018).
 The Struggle for Democracy, 2018 Elections and Updates Edition. (12th ed.). Pearson.

Sanbonmatsu, K. (2020). Women’s Underrepresentation in the U.S. Congress. American Academic of Arts and Science. https://www.amacad.org/publication/womens-underrepresentation-us-congress