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1.Research methods commonly used in nursing can be classified in different ways. The following is a discussion of the most common classifications. First, research methods are classified as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed. This is the most common classification.

Quantitative Research

Quantitative research involves the collection and analysis of numerical data. It is used to confirm a hypothesis. This method’s ontology can be described as objective, material, and structural. Quantitative methods rely on scientific realism justified by empirical confirmation. According to Creswell and Creswell (2023, pp. 45-46), the most common research objectives are numerical description, causal establishment and explanation, and prediction. Quantitative research relies on precise measurement using validated and structured tools. Common quantitative methods in nursing research include surveys, experiments, and observational studies. Conclusions are drawn from statistical analysis.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research involves the construction of knowledge hypothesis and grounded theory from the data collected during fieldwork. The ontology can be described as subjective, mental, personal, and constructed. It delves into understanding human experiences, behaviors, and social phenomena. According to Creswell and Creswell (2023, p. 46), this research method involves collecting qualitative data such as in-depth interviews, participant observations, and open-ended questions. Qualitative methods in nursing research include interviews, focus groups, content analysis, and ethnographic studies. Qualitative designs include descriptive methods, narrative, phenomenological, grounded theory, ethnography, and case studies.

Mixed Methods

Mixed-methods research combines aspects of quantitative and qualitative approaches within a single study. It allows researchers to comprehensively understand a research question by collecting and analyzing numerical and contextual data. In nursing research, mixed-methods studies are often employed to explore complex healthcare issues from multiple angles.

Second, research can be classified as experimental or non-experimental. Experimental research involves the manipulation of one or more variables to determine the effect of an outcome. An example is a Randomized controlled study. On the other hand, there are non-experimental research methods that focus on the observation of phenomena as they occur. Examples include observational studies, case-control studies, and cohort studies. Finally, nursing research can be classified based on the time of data collection. When the data is collected at a single point in time, this is called cross-sectional research, while data collection for an extended period creates a longitudinal study (Butler et al., 2021).

2. Research approaches in nursing can be divided into a number of groups, each with its own specific traits and goals. Quantitative research is one of the main categories, and it entails the systematic collection and analysis of numerical data in order to establish cause-and-effect correlations or characterize patterns (Griffiths et al., 2020). Descriptive and correlational research, which are subsets of quantitative research, concentrate on describing phenomena or looking for links between variables, respectively, whereas experimental research uses controlled studies to modify variables. In nursing research, conducting large-scale surveys, evaluating the efficacy of interventions, and tracking patient outcomes are all made possible by quantitative research.

Another well-known subcategory is qualitative research, which aims to investigate people’s viewpoints and real-world experiences. Aspects of this methodology include phenomenology, which aims to comprehend a phenomenon from the perspective of the participants, grounded theory, which develops hypotheses based on actual facts, and ethnography, which explores the cultural backdrop of healthcare practices (Griffiths et al., 2020). For acquiring an understanding of the subjective facets of nursing, such as patient experiences, emotional reactions, and cultural impacts on healthcare, qualitative research is crucial.

Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, mixed-methods research provides a thorough grasp of intricate nursing phenomena. Both numerical and narrative data are gathered by researchers through surveys, experiments, observations, or in-person discussions (Griffiths et al., 2020). When a researcher wants to triangulate findings or offer a more comprehensive viewpoint on a study subject, this strategy can be quite helpful.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are vital methodologies in nursing research because they serve a critical role in integrating and appraising current studies related to a specific healthcare condition. A systematic review employs a rigorous and organized approach to locating, selecting, and evaluating relevant research studies. These studies aim to provide a comprehensive review of the available data on a certain healthcare topic. Researchers painstakingly assemble information from multiple sources, evaluate the quality of each study, and then summarize the findings to provide a transparent and objective picture of the current state of knowledge in the subject (Griffiths et al., 2020). Meta-analysis, on the other hand, goes a step further by statistically combining the data of multiple studies to derive more solid and broadly applicable conclusions. These strategies collectively provide a substantial addition to nursing’s use of evidence-based practice by presenting a complete body of research.

Action research is a popular methodology in clinical practice and nursing education. It stands out for its inclusive teamwork style that includes both scholars and practitioners. This approach’s main objective is to pinpoint specific obstacles or problems in the healthcare setting, and then work together to develop and provide solutions. By incorporating researchers and practitioners in problem-solving, data collecting, analysis, and improvement implementation, action research emphasizes a cycle of continuous improvement (Griffiths et al., 2020). It is especially helpful in clinical practice, where it can motivate efforts to improve quality, and in nursing education, where it can trigger curriculum modifications and creative teaching methods. Action research seeks to make positive changes that enhance patient care and outcomes in the healthcare environment by concentrating on practical, real-world concerns and encouraging cooperation between researchers and practitioners.

In conclusion, there are several different types of nursing research methodologies, including quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods, systematic reviews/meta-analyses, and action research. With the ultimate goal of advancing nursing knowledge and enhancing patient care, researchers choose the most suitable approach depending on their research objectives, ethical considerations, available resources, and the nature of the phenomenon under examination.